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For users of screen readers, depending on the screen resolution, the two checkboxes are for opening and closing the side menus that appear to the left and right side of the screen. This is designed both for large screens and for mobile devices with a touch screen. Checking either the main menu or sidebar checkboxes causes the menu to open from the left or right side of the screen, respectively. Clearing the checkox in either the main menu or sidebar closes the menu. The checkboxes are visible to screen readers such as JAWS and NVDA for Windows, Voiceover for Mac, and Orca screen reader for Linux. When a screen reader says "clickable" for both main menu and sidebar, that is for the respective checkboxes. End of explaination.

Category: Scripting and Programming, subcategory of The World of Computers

Use $HOME, not /home/$USER in BASH scripts

Audience

This article is for experienced Linux users who are familar with environment variables such as $HOME and $USER. These are the Linux users who are familiar with the command line.

Problem and Solution

Here is an example not to use /home/$USER:

[gpeddie-games@epcotcenter ~]$ su - gpadmin
Password: 
mkdir: cannot create directory ‘/home/gpadmin’: Permission denied
touch: cannot touch '/home/gpadmin/Templates/Text file': No such file or directory
mkdir: cannot create directory ‘/home/gpadmin’: Permission denied
-bash: /home/gpadmin/.local/share/DaVinciResolve/configs/.version: No such file or directory
Welcome. All activities monitored at all times.
Unauthorized access is strictly prohibited.
gpadmin@epcotcenter 
  ~
$

And here's the script (/etc/profile) that illustrates an example:

# fix gnome missing 'New file' option
if [ ! -f /home/$USER/Templates/"Text file" ]
then
    mkdir -p /home/$USER/Templates
    touch /home/$USER/Templates/"Text file"
fi

# ...

# this is a hack to bypass the Davinci Resolve new install Welcome/Onboarding screen since it does not render properly and is not required.
if [ ! -f /home/$USER/.local/share/DaVinciResolve/configs/.version ];then
    mkdir -p /home/$USER/.local/share/DaVinciResolve/configs/
    echo "Onboarding.Version=10" > /home/$USER/.local/share/DaVinciResolve/configs/.version
fi

To fix this issue, simply replace all instances of /home/$USER with $HOME. I am familiar with a text editor called Vim. It's a program that runs inside a terminal, similar to the Command Prompt or PowerShell in Windows.

Before we proceed any further, let's create a backup copy of /etc/profile:

sudo cp /etc/profile /etc/profile.bak

If anything goes wrong, you now have a backup. You can simply use the cp (copy) command to restore from the backup. Now let's begin.

  1. First, open the Terminal (Konsole in KDE).

  2. As root (or with sudo privileges), type the following command:

    sudo vim /etc/profile
  3. Type in the following command, starting with a colon:

    :%s/\/home\/$USER/$HOME/g

    The syntax for search and replace in Vim is as follows:

    :%s/search/replace/g

    Let's not concern ourselves with g at the end for now. Basically this command replaces "search" with the next text "replace." In other words, we want to replace /home/$USER with $HOME.

    Let's have a look at the script again:

    # fix gnome missing 'New file' option
    if [ ! -f $HOME/Templates/"Text file" ]
    then
        mkdir -p $HOME/Templates
        touch $HOME/Templates/"Text file"
    fi
    
    # ...
    
    # this is a hack to bypass the Davinci Resolve new install Welcome/Onboarding screen since it does not render properly and is not required.
    if [ ! -f $HOME/.local/share/DaVinciResolve/configs/.version ];then
        mkdir -p $HOME/.local/share/DaVinciResolve/configs/
        echo "Onboarding.Version=10" > $HOME/.local/share/DaVinciResolve/configs/.version
    fi

    So why would we want to replace /home/$USER with $HOME? That /home/$USER should still work!

    Let's look at the output again after we save the changes.

  4. Save the changes to the /etc/profile file.

    :wq

    A : begins a command. w writes changes to the file and q quits Vim

    If you don't want to make changes to the file, then all you have to do is type :q! to exit without saving any changes.

As I mentioned, let's look at the output again when I log into my administrator account from a user account.

[gpeddie-games@epcotcenter ~]$ su - gpadmin
Password:
mkdir: cannot create directory ‘/home/gpadmin’: Permission denied
touch: cannot touch '/home/gpadmin/Templates/Text file': No such file or directory
mkdir: cannot create directory ‘/home/gpadmin’: Permission denied
-bash: /home/gpadmin/.local/share/DaVinciResolve/configs/.version: No such file or directory
Welcome. All activities monitored at all times.
Unauthorized access is strictly prohibited.
gpadmin@epcotcenter
  ~
$

Now, let's see the new output when I log back in as an administrator.

[gpeddie-games@epcotcenter ~]$ su - gpadmin
Password: 
Last login: Sat Mar 18 11:13:52 EDT 2023 on pts/0
Welcome. All activities monitored at all times.
Unauthorized access is strictly prohibited.
gpadmin@epcotcenter 
  ~
$

I have covered more explanation regarding how this works and I have discussed a scenario in my article.


Article published: 2023-03-18 15:37

Categories: The World of Computers, Computers, Information Technology, Scripting and Programming

Backup Your WordPress or ClassicPress Files, Configuration, and Database with a Single Script

Audience and Prerequisites

Skip to scenario if you want to jump into the main article.

This is for anyone who currently host their WordPress or ClassicPress in a virtual private server such as DigitalOcean, Linode, or any other VPS providers. Any Linux user with knowledge of command line can perform backups and restoration tasks. You must be familiar with Linux and you know how to connect to your production server via SSH.

Plus, this article assumes that you have installed and configured WordPress in your VPS server. In addition, this article assumes you can perform basic database administration tasks such as adding a new database along with creating a new user for WordPress or ClassicPress. If your hosting provider provides managed WordPress or ClassicPress hosting, then this article may not apply to you. And because this article is for those who currently run a VPS server, I am going to have to assume that you have some hands-on experience with the Linux command line. This article need not apply to non-technical Linux, Mac, and Windows users. When I say non-technical Linux users, I'm talking about those who wanted to get away from Windows or Mac and simply wanted to use Linux just to browse the Internet and not deal with the command line.

Last, but not least, I am also going to assume that you know how to configure your Apache server as well. Both Apache and NGINX (pronounced Engine-X) configurations won't be covered here, including backing up and copying certificates that you get from your hosting provider.

If you are interested in learning Linux, a tutorial from Guru99 will help get you started on learning Linux.

Are you ready? Then let's get started!

Scenario

You have your own VPS server that is running ClassicPress. Your domain name is exmaple.com and your SSH port number is (insert your TCP port number here). You have a development server for developing your own custom ClassicPress theme and you want to use your development server to backup everything from your production server.


Article published: 2022-11-17 08:47

Categories: The World of Computers, Information Technology, Internet, Networking, Scripting and Programming

New Addition to my Website: Pagination (ClassicPress)

As a web developer of my website, I have implemented pagination that allows anyone to view more posts by page and be able to view blog posts by month and year. I created a custom theme from scratch so that I can personalize my website to my liking. I wanted to give the pagination system an "electronic" look.

Pagination along with month and year for my website
This screenshot shows pagination implemented in my website. In my development machine, I have set the number of posts per page to 5 in order to demonstrate the effect. I blurred the surrounding image to cut the file size by half.

For those with eyesight, you can click in the image to see a full screen of my desktop that shows the pagination system in effect.

The code for the pagination system for ClassicPress can be found in this full article.


Article published: 2021-05-01 08:57

Categories: The World of Computers, Scripting and Programming